Training Course

Understanding Digital Wireless Systems – RF, 5G, LTE, LoRa, IoT, Wi-Fi, PAN, LPWAN, Satcoms

  • 603
  • £2,995 +VAT
  • 5 days
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Why this Wireless course?

This unique, fast-track course meets the needs of staff wanting a solid understanding of wireless communications systems and networks. The course is **MODULAR** – you can attend whichever days you like – to meet your exact needs. The course provides a solid understanding of:

  • Wireless networks, technologies and protocols
  • Radio Frequency (RF) and microwave fundamentals
  • Antennas and MIMO Techniques
  • 5G, LTE, LTE Advanced, UMTS, HSPA, HSPA+, GSM, GPRS, EDGE
  • IoT technologies, LPWA, NB-IoT, LTE-M, LoRa, Sigfox and more
  • CBRS – UK, USA, World-wide
  • Wi-Fi networks, including WiFi 5 and WiFi 6 (802.11ax)
  • Bluetooth and BLE, ZigBee
  • RFID and Near Field Communications
  • Satellite Communications
  • The essentials of wireless systems security
  • Wireless and Cellular network Planning and Design.

Delegates learn in detail how radio communications work, and examine the challenges and new developments in fundamental wireless technologies.

Wireless Training Course Objectives

On completing this course, you will be able to:

  • Understand deep concepts of RF communications including signal propagation, dB, RF calculations, RF link budgets, RF planning.
  • Understand the all current modulation, coding, multiplexing, forward error correction, puncturing, OFDM and spread spectrum technologies.
  • Understand antenna design and operation including advanced antenna systems.
  • Describe the multiple access schemes used in modern wireless networks, including FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDM and OFDMA.
  • Describe the architecture and operation of GSM, GPRS, EDGE, UMTS, HSPA, LTE, LTE-A and 5G systems.
  • Describe the components, architecture and operation of IoT technologies including LoRa, LoRaWAN, LTE-M, NB-IoT, Sigfox and more.
  • Describe the architecture and operation of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee and NFC -based systems.
  • Understand the principles of Satellite Communications systems, services, link budgets and equipment.

Who should attend this Wireless course

  • Everyone wanting a solid understanding of the broad range of wireless communications systems used around the World today.
  • Staff responsible for evaluating wireless systems or equipment
  • Technical sales and marketing professionals
  • Wireless communications engineers
  • Mobile communications engineers
  • Radio engineers
  • Developers of wireless products and services

Wireless Course Pre-requisites

Attendees should have some prior understanding of telecommunications or data network principlesbefore attending the course.

Lifetime Post-Course Support

After completing this Wireless training course, delegates receive lifetime post-training support from LEVER Technology Group, to help them apply the technologies and skills they have learned with us, to provide career-long support, and to ensure they are better equipped for their future roles in IT and networking.

Wireless Training Course Content

Day 1

Overview of RF and wireless systems

  • Early radio communications systems
  • 1G NMT, Analogue Mobile Phone System, AMPS, DAMPS
  • 2G / GSM, GPRS
  • 3G / UMTS, HSPA, HSDPA, HSUPA
  • 4G / LTE and LTE-A, LTE Advanced, LTE Advanced Pro, LTE IoT, NB-IoT, LTE-M
  • 5G SA and NSA, 5G NR FR2, eMBB
  • 5G M2M, mMTC, URLLC, Cat-M1
  • LPWA (Low Power Wide Area Wireless) and LPWAN
  • IEEE 802.11 WiFi, 802.11n WiFi 4, 802.11ac WiFi 5, 802.11ax WiFi 6
  • IEEE 802.11ad WiGig
  • IEEE 802.11ah WiFi HaLow
  • IEEE 802.11af White-Fi / SuperFi
  • IEEE 802.15.1, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
  • IEEE 802.15.4, 802.15.4e, ZigBee Smart, 802.15.4g
  • Z-Wave
  • Weightless
  • HomePlug GP
  • G.9959
  • WirelessHART
  • DASH7
  • ANT and ANT+
  • LoRa and LoRaWAN
  • Symphony Link
  • Sigfox
  • Wi-SUN FAN
  • Ingenu RPMA
  • ISA100.11a
  • DigiMesh
  • DECT / ULE
  • NFC (Near Field Communications)
  • Terrestrial microwave systems
  • Trunk Mobile communications, MPT1327, TETRAPOL, TETRA, BT Airwave, BT Quadrant
  • Satellite communications, VSAT, SpaceX Starlink

Essential principles of radio communications

  • Electromagnetic radiation
  • Review of RF bands and Frequencies
  • Radio propagation principles
  • RF propagation
  • Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction, Absorption
  • Multipath effects and fading
  • RF power, deciBel dB, dB concepts
  • dBm, dBi, dBd
  • EIRP and ERP
  • Free Space Path Loss (FSPL)
  • Fresnel zone
  • Other path loss factors
  • Link Budget concepts, formulas, calculations
  • Received Signal Strength and RSSI
  • Receiver Sensitivity
  • Sources of RF noise and RF interference
  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
  • Shannon Hartley forumla, maximum information rates
  • Delay spread, ISI
  • Frequency-selective fading

Radio Frequency Equipment and Transmissions

  • The basics of radio
  • Radio antennas
    • Isotropic and Dipole
    • Directional and semi-directional antennas
    • Beamforming and MIMO Antennas
  • Spread Spectrum technologies: FHSS, DSSS, OFDM
  • RF channels
  • Channel reuse
  • Interference
  • Common Causes of RF Interference
  • Signal Range

Modulation and Performance

  • Comparison of modulation techniques
  • Types of modulators and demodulators
  • BPSK, QPSK, MPSK, pi/4-QPSK
  • QAM, 64-QAM, 256-QAM
  • Antenna and space diversity
  • Adjacent channel interference

Information Theory

  • Shannon’s equation
  • Why code?
  • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
  • Coding Techniques
  • Block and Reed-Solomon coding
  • Interleaving
  • Convolutional coding
  • Turbo coding

Day 2

Fundamental Multiple Access Schemes

  • FDMA
  • TDMA
  • CDMA
  • OFDM
  • OFDMA

Wireless Network Architectures

  • Wireless network infrastructures
  • Overlay Networks – the Global Goal
  • Wireless Networks vs Fixed Networks
  • Wireless Communications Categorisation
  • Defining 1G, 2G, 3G, 2.5G, 2.75G, 4G and 5G services
  • Modern wireless systems: overview of development
  • World-wide Digital Cordless Telecommunications Standards
  • Wireless Communications Technologies Comparison
  • Wireless LANs
  • Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN)
  • Point-to-Point ad MultiPoint wireless links

Mobile Radio System Fundamentals

  • Signal Strength vs Range
  • Cellular Principles
  • Co-Channel Interference
  • Frequency Re-use
  • Cell Sizes
  • Cells, Clusters and Channels
  • Cell Splitting
  • Mobile station handover
  • Location Areas and Mobility Management (MM)
  • Power Control
  • The Handover process
  • Employing Concentric Cells
  • Issues at street junctions

Fundamentals of GSM

  • GSM features and services
  • The GSM Architecture
  • GSM in operation
  • Attaching to the network
  • GSM MO and MT calls
  • Overview of the GSM Air Interface
  • Circuit-Switched Data (CSD)
  • Short Message Service (SMS)

Fundamentals of GPRS

  • What is GPRS?
  • How is GPRS added to GSM networks?
  • GPRS data rates
  • GPRS network architecture
  • GPRS operation
  • GPRS protocol architecture
  • GPRS multiframe structure
  • GPRS Air Interface
  • GPRS logical channels
  • EDGE and E-GPRS

Day 3

Fundamentals of 3G and UMTS

  • 3GPP
  • Spectrum Allocation
  • Air Interface
  • Understanding CDMA
  • Scrambling Codes
  • Power Control Mechanisms
  • Multiple Access using CDMA
  • WCDMA Coverage and Ec/No
  • Inter-Cell Interference
  • Handover Types
  • Radio Resource Connected Mode States
  • Network Architecture
  • Migration to IP
  • Channels on the Air Interface
  • Core Network Evolution

High Speed packet Access and HSPA+

  • R5 High Speed Packet Access
  • HSDPA Technology Changes to UMTS
  • Power Utilisation
  • Modulation
  • Coding Scheme
  • Hybrid ARQ with Soft Combining
  • New Logical Channels
  • HSDPA Enhancements
  • Bit Rates – HSUPA
  • Soft Handover
  • Refarming GSM 900 bands

Fundamentals of LTE and LTE Advanced

  • Goals of LTE
  • Performance Aims and Objectives
  • LTE Terminology
  • LTE Architectural Concepts
  • E-UTRAN architecture and interfaces
  • New network elements
    • enodeB
    • MME functionality
    • S-GW functionality
    • PDN-GW functionality
    • PCRF (Policy and Charging Rules Function) Server
  • LTE Nodes and Interfaces
  • Frequency bands for LTE
  • LTE and MIMO
  • Space Time Diversity Coding and Spatial Multiplexing
  • STBC and SFBC
  • OFDM Downlink
  • SC-FDMA Uplink
  • CP
  • LTE Cell Search Procedure
  • LTE Handovers
  • LTE Terminal Classes
  • Recent LTE network trials
  • Voice over LTE (VoLTE)

Release 10 LTE Advanced

  • Carrier Aggregation (CA)
  • MIMO Antennas – Releases 8/9
  • Release 10 Antennas
  • Relay Node

Day 4

5G Concepts and Drivers

  • 5G Standardisation
  • 5G Network Architecture
  • Design Objectives
  • 5G use of RF spectrum
  • New Radio (NR) and NG-RAN
  • NG-RAN architecture
  • NR and NG-RAN Features
  • Dual connectivity
  • Small cells
  • Increased spectrum
  • Radio enhancements
  • Beam Forming and Steering
  • Cloud RAN
  • 5G RAN deployment options

5G Core Network Architecture

  • PDU sessions
  • Core Network elements
  • Network Virtualization
  • Network Slicing

5G Initial Procedures

  • Finding the network
  • Network Registration

Using the 5G Network

  • Idle and Connected Mode
  • Establishing a PDU session
  • Moving to Idle
  • Getting connected � Service Request
  • Paging

5G Mobility

  • Tracking Area Updates
  • Handovers
  • Roaming

5G and IoT

  • IoT devices
  • Radio modules
  • SIM, eSIM and Remote SIM Provisioning
  • Radio Access Network enhancements
  • EC-GSM IoT
  • LTE-M
  • NB-IoT
  • E-to-E Security
  • Latest 5G developments

Fundamentals of TETRA

  • Introduction to trunking
  • Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA)
  • Features of TETRA technology
  • TETRA TDMA basics
  • TETRA Architecture and Components: BS, LSC, MSC, LR, MT, TE, NT
  • Voice and Data services
  • Status, and Short Data Service (SDS)
  • Direct Mode Operation (DMO)

802.11 / Wi-Fi Networks and Protocols

  • Radio Frequency (RF) Bands
  • Role of the Wi-Fi Alliance� and their standards
  • Use of the 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands
  • The IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Standards
  • 802.11b DSSS/HR, 802.11g ERP, 802.11a OFDM
  • 802.11n HT (WiFi 4) at 2.4GHz and 5GHz
  • VHT 802.11ac WiFi 5, HE 802.11ax WiFi 6
  • Infrastructure vs Ad-hoc Networks
  • Service Sets: IBSS, BSS, BSSID, ESS, SSID / ESSID
  • The Service Set Identifier (SSID)
  • Access Points (APs)
  • Wireless LAN Clients and Adapters
  • 802.11 PHY Layers
  • Data Rates and Ranges, ARS / DRS
  • 802.11 MAC Layer Operation
  • How devices Scan for WiFi networks
  • Authentication and Association with an AP
  • Working with 802.11 / Wi-Fi equipment

Wi-Fi Security

  • Available security solutions
  • Review of Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
  • Issues with MAC address filtering
  • Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) v1.0
  • Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)
  • WPA and Authentication
  • 802.11i / WPA v2, AES, CCMP
  • The Generic 802.1x/EAP process and EAP types
  • Auditing Wi-Fi Security

Day 5

802.11ad / WiGig

  • WiGig PHY layer
  • Applications for WiGig

Internet of Things (IoT)

  • IoT Applications
  • Including: Telematics, SCADA, Smart Grid, Smart City, SCP, CSL, Smart Agriculture, Smart Homes
  • Comparison of enabling technologies for IoT
  • Short-range wireless
  • Medium-range wireless
  • Long-range wireless
  • LPWAN, U-LPWAN, L-LPWAN
  • LoRa and LoRaWAN
  • Sigfox
  • Wi-SUN FAN
  • Weightless
  • Ingenu RPMA
  • Z-Wave
  • 6LowPAN and Thread
  • UWB
  • NFC
  • ANT+

802.11ah and Wi-Fi HaLow

  • 802.11ah PHY and MAC Layers
  • Applications for 802.11ah

LoRa and LoRaWAN

  • Introduction to IoT and LPWAN
  • What are LoRa and LoRaWAN?
  • LoRa and LoRaWAN networks
  • Range vs Power
  • Data rates
  • LoRa Physical Layer
  • LoRaWAN protocol stack
  • Rules and regulations
  • Operating LoRa in Europe, USA and other regions
  • ETSI Sub bands 863-870
  • Changing frequencies for every transmission
  • Dwell time, hop time
  • Modulation Types
  • Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS)
  • Symbols, Chirps, Spreading Factor, Bit Rate

LoRaWAN Specifications

  • LoRaWAN devices and products
  • Power Consumption
  • Radio Modulation
  • Localisation
  • Firmware Updates Over-the-Air (FUOTA)
  • LoRaWan packet format
  • LoRaWAN Security
  • General LoRaWAN considerations
  • The Things Network restrictions
  • Duty cycle / time on air (ToA)
  • LoRaWAN Device Classes

Fundamentals of Bluetooth

  • Bluetooth Applications
  • Bluetooth Profiles
  • Bluetooth Standards
  • How does Bluetooth work?
    • RF characteristics, Piconet, Scatternet, Master/Slave
    • Bluetooth Protocol Architecture, SCO and ACK Links
    • Logical Channels, Access Procedures
    • Error Correction, Flow Control, Connection States
    • Bluetooth security
  • Bluetooth versions 1.2, 2.0, 2.1, 3.0, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2
  • Bluetooth Smart (BLE)

ZigBee, RFID and Near Field Communications (NFC)

  • IEEE 802.15 standards
  • 802.15.4 and the ZigBee Alliance
  • Defining ZigBee Technology
  • Target Applications for ZigBee
  • ZigBee Topology Models
  • IEEE 802.15.4 Architecture and Operation

RFID

  • Standards
  • Tag Types
  • Near Field Communications (NFC)
  • Far Field Devices
  • RFID Frequency Bands
  • EPC Product Codes
  • RFID Standards

Ultra Wideband (UWB)

  • UWB Theory
  • UWB Technology
  • UWB Antenna systems
  • UWB Applications

Optical Wireless Communication (OWC)

  • Introduction to Li-Fi
  • Commercial products
  • Current status of Li-Fi

Satellite Communications

  • Satellites, Orbits: LEO, MEO, GEO, HEO
  • Frequencies: L, S, C, X, Ku, Ka
  • Dishes and Mounts
  • Alignment and Adjustment
  • Indoor and Outdoor equipment
  • Basics of Satellite Link Budget calculations
  • Sample Available Services and Markets
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