Training Course

Satellite Communications: Earth Station Design and Analysis

  • 613
  • £2,925 +VAT
  • 4 days
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Why this Satellite Earth Station course?

Throughout this course, attendees gain an in-depth understanding of the technical aspects of Satellite Earth Station design, deployment and link budget analysis, using calculator exercises and detailed analysis using spreadsheets. Each module of this course builds upon the previous modules, culminating in a complete performance analysis of a Geosynchronous Satellite network, based on equipment specifications, system configuration and satellite parameters.

Satellite Earth Station Training Course Objectives

On completing this course, you will be able to:

  • Develop a system design based on communications requirements and limitations.
  • Select system components, based on their specifications, to satisfy system requirements.
  • Perform detailed EIRP and G/T analysis.
  • Establish proper signal levels for optimum performance.
  • Select the proper access technique based on system requirements and network topology.
  • Perform availability analysis based on required fade margin, equipment reliability and sparing strategy.
  • Perform detailed end-to-end link budget analysis based on system limitations and equipment parameters.

Who should attend this Satellite Earth Station course

  • Technicians and Engineers wanting a solid introduction to the field of satellite communications.
  • Engineers, Communications managers, and Technicians working with in Earth stations or with VSAT equipment.

Lifetime Post-Course Support

After completing this Satellite Earth Station training course, delegates receive lifetime post-training support from LEVER Technology Group, to help them apply the technologies and skills they have learned with us, to provide career-long support, and to ensure they are better equipped for their future roles in IT and networking.

Satellite Earth Station Training Course Content

Digital Communications for Geosynchronous Satellites

  • Digital versus Analogue signals
  • Network components and topologies
  • Switching terminology
  • Digital/Analogue comparison

Line Codes: Bit Rate, Baud Rate and Bandwidth

  • Nyquist theory, Shannon’s law
  • Bandwidth and bit rate at baseband
  • Line code variations

Voice Encoding Techniques: Bandwidth vs. Latency

  • Waveform encoding
  • Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
  • Adaptive Differential PCM
  • Source coding
  • Linear Predictive Coding
  • Code-book Excited Linear Prediction (CELP)
  • Voice coding issues over satellite links

Digital Communications Protocols

  • Overview of protocol layers
  • Physical layer aggregation and switching protocols
  • Standards-based TDM: T-carriers and E-carriers
  • Proprietary TDM: aggregate rate multiplexing
  • Digital Cross-Connect Switching (DCS)
  • Digital Circuit Multiplication Equipment (DCME)
  • Data Link layer protocols and equipment
  • Frame Relay FRADs and switches
  • ATM and negative latency
  • Network layer devices and functions

Network timing and synchronisation

  • Timing terminology and concepts
  • Stratum levels and timing architectures

Satellite Communications Overview

  • History of satellite communications
  • Geosynchronous satellites
  • Overview of Earth station sub-systems

Geosynchronous Satellites: Strengths and Weaknesses

  • Common satellite deployments
  • Problems caused by long path delays
    • The need for echo cancellation
    • Perceptible delay in conversation
    • Talk collisions over double-hops
    • Reduction in throughput when using protocols that require acknowledgement and re-transmission
  • Problems caused by relative satellite motion
    • Doppler shift of high-speed data streams
    • Tracking requirements due to satellite inclination

Overview of Satellite Access Techniques

  • FDMA for digital and analogue access
  • TDMA and F/TDMA for digital access

Earth Station Equipment: Parameters and Impairments

  • Review of decibels and dB units
  • Logarithms and their functions
  • When NOT to use decibels

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

  • Frequency vs. Wavelength
  • Band designations
  • Radar bands common to satellite communications

Radio Building Blocks

  • Basics of radio amplifiers
  • Filter types and functions
  • Type of oscillators
  • Mixers and multipliers

Earth Station Uplink Equipment

  • Upconverter types and characteristics
  • Typical Upconverter specifications
  • Amplifier types and characteristics
  • Amplifier impairments due to non-linearity
    • Intermodulation distortion
    • Spectral Regrowth
  • Typical amplifier specifications
  • Post-amplifier combining techniques
    • Wide-band signal combining
    • Frequency-specific signal combining
  • Transmission line characteristics

Antennas and Tracking Systems

  • Antenna types
  • Antenna patterns and Gain calculations
  • Antenna polarisation techniques
    • Linear polarisation
    • Circular polarisation
    • Comparison of Linear and Circular polarisation
  • Example antenna specifications
  • Antenna tracking systems
    • Step-tracking systems
    • Mono-pulse tracking systems

Earth Station Downlink Equipment

  • The Low Noise Amplifier
    • LNA Types
    • LNAs vs LNBs
    • LNA/LNB characteristics
    • Typical LNA/LNB Specifications
  • Downconverter characteristics

Modems and Error Correction

  • Modulation: Digital and Analog
  • Basics of digital modulation
    • Modulation scheme constellations
    • Noise, Errors and Free Distance
    • C/N and Eb/N0 calculations
  • Error Correction techniques
    • Block Coding
    • Convolutional Coding
    • Concatenated Coding
    • Turbo Block Coding (TBC)
    • LDPC
    • Polar codes
  • Modem variations
    • Coherent vs Differential demodulation
    • Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM)
    • Offset QPSK for PAPR improvement
  • Timing considerations for satellite links
    • Loop timing systems
    • Master/Slave timing systems
    • Doppler buffers for high data rates
  • Band-limited vs Power-limited operation based on Modulation/FEC
  • Important modem characteristics and specifications

Thermal Noise and C/N

  • Quantifying noise
  • Determining the C/N
  • Adding the Uplink C/N and the Downlink C/N

Power and M&C Systems

  • System components and alarm types
  • Critical and technical power systems

Earth Station Design

  • Comparison of access techniques
  • Dedicated carrier access
  • Demand Assigned Multiple Access
    • FDMA
    • TDMA
    • F/TDMA
  • Access technique selection criteria
  • Cost Analysis: FDMA vs. TDMA
  • Hub-spoke vs. Mesh Networks

Uplink Design Considerations

  • Antenna gain and efficiency
  • Earth station EIRP
  • Earth station gains and losses
  • Setting uplink levels

Downlink Design Considerations

  • Downlink levels
  • Internal and external noise contributions
  • Noise figure and noise temperature
  • Performing a cascade analysis
  • G/T contributing factors
  • Performing a detailed G/T analysis

Determining System Availability

  • Equipment configuration
  • Sparing strategy
  • Equipment reliability
  • Link availability and rain fade

Link Analysis Techniques

  • Overview of Link Analysis
  • Limiting factors in link analysis
  • Satellite considerations
  • Earth terminal parameters
  • Operational parameters

Sources of Interference

  • Adjacent satellite interference
  • Terrestrial radio interference
  • Interference due to Intermodulation Products

Spreading Loss and Path Loss

  • Determining distance to satellite
  • Determining power flux density at the satellite
  • Free Space Loss calculation
  • Other loss contributions
    • Pointing loss
    • Polarisation Offset loss
    • Absorption Loss

Satellite Transponder Parameters

  • Saturation flux density
  • G/T
  • Saturation EIRP
  • Transponder frequency translation
  • Transponder padding
  • Transponder bandwidth
  • Transponder footprint
  • Satellite Inclination

Performing Link Budgets for Bent-pipe Satellites

  • Determining Total C/N on a link
  • Determining EIRP for bandwidth-limited operation
  • Performing detailed Uplink/Downlink power budgets
  • Putting it all together: Link Budget exercises

Ka-band and Processing Satellites

  • Processing satellites: Pros and Cons
  • Link Budgets for processing satellite
  • Ka-band and the future of Geosynchronous Satellites
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